Global care chains also contribute to a larger, neo-colonial process – a “global care drain,” in which care is systematically extracted from people in poor countries and transferred to individuals in affluent nations . It is widely argued that neoliberal policies have created dramatic economic inequalities, both between the global North and global South and within countries in both hemispheres. One task for feminist political philosophers has been to identify the ways in which these policies reinforce specific inequalities based on gender, class, race, and nationality. In particular, feminists shed light on the disparate and often disproportionately burdensome consequences of neoliberal policies for specific groups of women. An additional, related task has been to identify the ways in which gendered practices and ideologies shape the processes of globalization. The second methodological commitment shared by feminist approaches to globalization is a sensitivity to context and concrete specificity.
Globalization poses many problems, including increased economic gains for already powerful countries at the expense of developing countries, a more homogeneous global culture overall and a host of negative environmental effects. Globalization is the process through which countries become increasingly connected through developments in technology, trade and cultural exchange. globalisation problems leads to increases foreign direct investment of a company from its country of origin into other countries. According to Stephanie Rohac , foreign direct investment is the international flow of capital by creating or expanding a subsidiary in another country. It may be made through established a new enterprise or acquisition of an existing entity. A firm becomes multinational in the case of establishing in two or more countries business enterprises through FDI.
Factory, shop and office closures have caused demand to tumble and prevented suppliers from reaching customers. Food is still getting through, Apple insists it can still make iPhones and China’s exports have held up so far, buoyed by sales of medical gear. In the first ten days of May exports from South Korea, a trade powerhouse, fell by 46% year-on-year, probably the worst decline since records began in 1967. For a country, when nation building is a first thing, maximisation of the national product need not be the sole objective of its politician regime . Globalization creates an opportunity to move and communicate easily with each other all over the world, it exceeds the business opportunities internationally.
Because of these structural injustices, women of all nationalities tend to suffer more from the poverty, overwork, deprivation, and political marginalization associated with neoliberal policies. Thus, more recent feminist analyses of globalization tend to understand the outcomes of globalization not as disparate or contingent phenomena, but rather as a result of systematic, structural injustices on a global scale. Indeed, some contend that the global basic structure itself is implicitly biased against women . The growing integration of economies and societies around the world – has been one of the most hotly-debated topics in international economics over the past few years. Rapid growth and poverty reduction in China, India, and other countries that were poor 20 years ago, has been a positive aspect of Liberalization Privatization and Globalization .
For example, technology to purify water could save many lives, but the villages in peripheral nations most in need of water purification don’t have access to the technology, the funds to purchase it, or the technological comfort level to introduce it as a solution. But the protesters are also right — no nation has ever developed over the long term under the rules being imposed today on third-world countries by the institutions controlling globalization. The United States, Germany, France and Japan all became wealthy and powerful nations behind the barriers of protectionism. East Asia built its export industry by protecting its markets and banks from foreign competition and requiring investors to buy local products and build local know-how. These are all practices discouraged or made illegal by the rules of trade today. The flow of international investment consists both of long-term capital and of speculative short-term capital .
Globalization must mutate to suit the national interest more broadly defined. We need better, evidence-based, and trusted public decision-making mechanisms for weighing short-term vs. long-term economic impacts and security benefits vs. economic costs. The worsening tensions and rhetoric on both sides are making it much harder for the two largest economies to cooperate even on the issues where such cooperation is in their own national interest instead choosing to engage in “strategic competition”. And the strains are increasingly compelling other countries to choose sides, re-dividing the world at a time when collective success depends more than ever on collective action.
As transport costs become less important, Mexico is increasingly competing with China and Bangladesh — where labor goes for as little as 9 cents an hour. This is one reason that real wages for the lowest-paid workers in Mexico dropped by 50 percent from 1985 to 2000. Chile began to grow, but inequality soared — the other problem with Pinochet’s globalization was that it left out the poor. While the democratic governments that succeeded Pinochet have not yet been able to reduce inequality, at least it is no longer increasing, and they have been able to use the fruits of Chile’s growth to help the poor.
All persons experience long periods during which their lives literally depend on the care of others, and everyone needs some degree of care in order flourish. Thus, vulnerability, dependency, and need should be understood not as deficits or limitations, but rather as essential human qualities requiring an adequate political response. Mohanty claims that this perspective leads to a simplistic understanding of what feminists in Western countries can do to “help” women in developing nations. Many of the recent developments in the feminist literature on globalization can be understood as a response to this theoretical failure. ‘Feminist theoretical approaches to globalization’ is an umbrella term that refers to a number of specific theoretical approaches that feminists have used to articulate the challenges that globalization poses for women, people of color, and the global poor.
But today if I were to picket globalization, I would protest other inequities. In a way, the chicken worker, who came to the factory when driving a taxi ceased to be profitable, is a beneficiary of globalization. So are the millions of young women who have left rural villages to be exploited gluing tennis shoes or assembling computer keyboards. The losers are those who get laid off when companies move to low-wage countries, or those forced off their land when imports undercut their crop prices, or those who can no longer afford life-saving medicine — people whose choices in life diminish because of global trade. Globalization has offered this man a hellish job, but it is a choice he did not have before, and he took it; I don’t name him because he is afraid of being fired. When I first set out to see for myself whether globalization has been for better or for worse, I was perplexed, too.
- But, as we saw in the Cold War, in practice such exceptions are very rare and highly vulnerable to ongoing political risk.
- Jean Baudrillard believes that globalization hurts local cultures and is the cause of most terrorism.
- Factory, shop and office closures have caused demand to tumble and prevented suppliers from reaching customers.
- Daewoo calls itself ”a locomotive for national economic development since its founding in 1967.” And despite the company’s recent troubles, it’s true — because Korea made it true.
Further evidence indicates that there is a positive growth-effect in countries that are sufficiently rich, as are most of the developed nations. Economic globalization echoes the views of neoliberal and neoclassicist thinkers in which states lose prominence and the world becomes a single global market of individual consumers. These consumers are characterized by their material and economic self-interest – rather than cultural, civic or other forms of identity. The expansion and dominance of global companies and brands is another key feature. These corporations contribute to deepen global interconnectedness not only by uniformly shaping consumption patterns across societies, but by binding economies together through complex supply chains, trade networks, flows of capital and manpower. Increasing economic globalization has made understanding the world economy more important than ever.
These transnational networks, sometimes referred to as “global civil society,” connect millions of people around the world based on shared political commitments. Consequently, some feminist philosophers believe that political “globalization from below” provides women and other vulnerable people with an effective means for resisting the inequalities created by economic globalization. For instance, some feminists argue that globalization has created new transnational public spheres in which political opinion can be marshaled to hold leaders democratically accountable . First, feminist approaches to globalization seek to provide frameworks for understanding the gender injustices associated with globalization. Rather than developing all-encompassing ideal theories of global justice, however, feminist philosophers tend to adopt the non-ideal theoretical perspectives, which focus on specific, concrete issues. Early feminist analyses focused on issues that were widely believed to be of particular importance to women around the world, such as domestic violence, workplace discrimination, and human rights violations against women.
In terms of the latter aspect, the existing pattern of globalization is not an inevitable trend – it is at least in part the product of policy choices. Feminists argue that women’s lack of political influence at the global level has not been compensated for by their increased influence in national politics because globalization has undermined national sovereignty, especially in poor nations. Structural adjustment policies require debtor nations to implement specific domestic policies that disproportionately harm women, such as austerity measures, despite strong local opposition. For instance, Wilcox argues that transnational injustices generate strong moral claims to admission for certain groups of prospective migrants. Her second argument maintains that a commitment to relational egalitarianism entails rejecting immigration restrictions that contribute to oppressive transnational structural relations.